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Inside the Unity Cement Plant: How Cement is Manufactured

March 20, 2024


Cement is a vital component in construction, serving as the binding agent in concrete, mortar, and grout. Understanding the intricate process behind cement manufacturing is crucial for appreciating its significance in the construction industry. In this article, we delve into the operations of Unity Cement, a leading cement manufacturer based in Rajkot, Gujarat. Specializing in the production of PPC (Portland Pozzolana Cement), OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement), and PSC (Portland Slag Cement), Unity Cement has carved a niche for itself in the construction industry through its commitment to quality and innovation. exploring “how cement is manufactured”. This knowledge underpins material selection, structural integrity, and sustainable building practices.


Raw Materials Used in Cement 

Unity Cement utilizes a blend of raw materials, including limestone, clay, iron ore, and gypsum. Each material plays a vital role in determining the properties of the final cement product. Careful selection and sourcing ensure consistency and quality in production.


1. Limestone

  • Provides the primary source of calcium carbonate.
  • Essential for the formation of clinker, a key component of cement.
  • Determines the strength and durability of the final cement product.


2. Clay or Shale

  • Supplies silica, alumina, and iron oxide.
  • Influences the chemical composition of cement, affecting its setting time and strength development.
  • Contributes to the overall quality and performance of cement in construction applications.


3. Pozzolans

  • Enhance the durability and sustainability of cement.
  • React with calcium hydroxide in cement to produce additional cementitious compounds, improving strength and resistance to chemical attack.
  • Contribute to the reduction of carbon emissions by replacing a portion of cement clinker in concrete mixes.


4. Iron Ore

  • Acts as a fluxing agent in cement kilns.
  • Facilitates the formation of clinker by lowering the melting point of the raw materials.
  • Regulates the color and strength characteristics of the cement.


5. Gypsum

  • Controls the setting time of cement by retarding the hydration process.
  • Prevents flash setting and allows sufficient time for concrete placement and finishing.
  • Improves workability and reduces the risk of early-age cracking in concrete structures.


6. Fly Ash

  • Enhances the strength and durability of concrete when used as a supplementary cementitious material.
  • Improves the workability and pumpability of concrete mixes.
  • Contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by utilizing a waste byproduct from coal combustion.


Sourcing and Selection Process of Raw Material 

Unity Cement implements rigorous sourcing and selection processes to ensure the quality and consistency of its raw materials. This involves:


i. Geological Surveys

Conducting detailed surveys to identify and assess potential deposits of limestone, clay, and iron ore. Geological data guides the selection of suitable mining sites with optimal raw material composition.


ii. Material Testing

Performing thorough laboratory analyses to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of raw material samples. This helps determine their suitability for cement production and allows for adjustments to the mix composition as needed.


iii. Environmental Considerations

Prioritizing environmentally sustainable practices in mining and extraction activities to minimize ecological impact and adhere to regulatory standards.


iv. Supplier Relationships

Cultivating strong relationships with reliable suppliers to ensure consistent access to high-quality raw materials. Regular monitoring and quality control measures help maintain standards throughout the supply chain.

By adhering to stringent sourcing and selection criteria, Unity Cement maintains a robust supply of raw materials, supporting its commitment to delivering superior cement products to customers while upholding environmental and social responsibility principles.


How Cement is Manufactured 


Step 1: Crushing

Crushing refers to the initial reduction of raw materials into smaller fragments using mechanical force. Raw materials such as limestone, clay, and shale are fed into crushers, where they are subjected to compression or impact forces. The goal of crushing is to reduce the size of raw materials to a suitable range for further processing, typically ranging from a few centimeters to a few millimeters.


Step 2: Grinding

Grinding involves further refining the crushed raw materials into fine powders through mechanical abrasion. Raw materials are fed into grinding mills, where they are pulverized by rotating grinding media such as steel balls or rollers. The grinding process enhances the surface area and reactivity of raw materials, promoting efficient chemical reactions during cement hydration.


Step 3: Preheating

The primary purpose of preheating is to reduce the energy consumption of the cement kiln by utilizing waste heat from the clinker cooler. Preheating raises the temperature of raw materials entering the kiln, promoting faster and more uniform chemical reactions during clinker formation. By preheating the raw mix, the thermal energy required for calcination and clinkerization is minimized, leading to significant energy savings and improved kiln efficiency. Unity Cement adopts advanced techniques from FL Smidth – Denmark (the world leader in cement technology) to optimize energy efficiency and minimize environmental impact during this phase.


Step 4: Pre-calcining

Pre-calcining involves partial calcination of raw materials before they enter the main kiln system. The pre-calcination process initiates the decomposition of carbonates in limestone and clay, releasing carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) at lower temperatures. Pre-calcining reduces the thermal load on the kiln, allowing for more efficient heat transfer and higher clinker quality due to reduced thermal stresses.


Step 5: Clinker Production


A. Formation of clinker

Clinker forms through the intricate chemical reactions and high-temperature treatment of raw materials in a rotary kiln during cement production. These reactions lead to the creation of nodular clinker with specific mineral phases crucial for cement properties and performance. This meticulous process ensures that Unity Cement’s products meet stringent quality standards and performance requirements.


B. Kiln operation

Kiln operation is a critical aspect of clinker production, requiring precise control of temperature, residence time, and airflow. Proper management of these parameters ensures efficient clinkerization, maintaining the quality and consistency of the final product.


C. Factors influencing clinker quality

Several factors impact clinker quality, including raw material composition, kiln operation parameters, and cooling methods. Consistent sourcing of raw materials, optimal kiln operation, and controlled cooling rates are essential for producing high-quality clinker, ensuring the durability and performance of cement products.


Step 6: Grinding of Clinker with Gypsum


A.Grinding Process

The grinding process involves finely pulverizing clinker nodules, obtained from the kiln, along with gypsum, to produce cement. This stage typically employs grinding mills such as ball mills or vertical roller mills, where the clinker and gypsum are ground to a fine powder. The grinding process optimizes the surface area and particle size distribution of the materials, enhancing their reactivity and facilitating the hydration process during cement mixing.


B. Addition of Gypsum

Gypsum, a mineral additive, is introduced during the grinding stage to regulate the setting time of the cement. Typically added in small quantities, gypsum retards the hydration of the cement particles, preventing premature setting and ensuring workability. The controlled addition of gypsum helps to achieve the desired setting properties, allowing for better handling and placement of concrete mixes.


C. Final Product Specifications

The final product specifications of cement are determined by various factors, including the grinding process and the composition of clinker and gypsum. Cement specifications encompass parameters such as fineness, setting time, strength development, and chemical composition. Finely ground clinker, blended with the appropriate amount of gypsum, results in cement with optimized properties, meeting industry standards and fulfilling specific application requirements in construction projects.


Step 7: Packaging

Unity Cement employs diverse packaging methods to cater to the varying needs of its customers and ensure the integrity of its products during transportation and storage. Cement is typically packaged using two main methods: bulk packaging and bag packaging. Bulk packaging involves loading cement into large containers, such as silos or tanker trucks, for transport to construction sites or distribution centers. Bag packaging, on the other hand, involves filling cement into durable bags, usually made of paper or plastic, in standardized weights ranging from 25 to 50 kilograms. Both methods ensure convenient handling and transportation of cement products to end-users. 

Maintaining product quality and integrity is paramount during the packaging process. Unity Cement implements stringent quality control measures at every stage to ensure that only superior-quality cement reaches the end consumers. 


Step 8: Distribution

Unity Cement employs a comprehensive network of distribution channels to ensure the widespread availability of its products and timely delivery to construction sites, retailers, and industrial clients across the region. Whether through direct sales, retail outlets, wholesale distributors, online platforms, or project supply contracts, Unity Cement remains committed to delivering high-quality cement products and exceptional service to its valued customers.

Click here to become Unity Cement’s distributor. 


Environmental Impact and Sustainability

While cement production is essential for infrastructure development, it can also pose environmental challenges such as greenhouse gas emissions and resource depletion. Unity Cement is committed to sustainability, implementing eco-friendly practices such as alternative fuel usage and waste heat recovery. Innovations in carbon capture and utilization offer promising avenues for reducing the industry’s carbon footprint. At Unity Cement, we also encourage people to plant trees using our Ropa Vitaran event. We have also planted 7500 trees during the inauguration event of the Unity Cement plant. 



The journey of cement manufacturing at Unity Cement showcases the intricate interplay of science, technology, and sustainability. By understanding the manufacturing process, we gain a deeper appreciation for the role of cement in shaping our built environment. As we look towards the future, embracing sustainable practices remains paramount for the continued growth and resilience of the construction industry.

In conclusion, Unity Cement stands as a beacon of innovation and responsibility in the cement manufacturing landscape. Let us join hands in building a sustainable future, one cement bag at a time.